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Hubble captures bubbles and baby stars

Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Hubble captures bubbles and baby stars (6/22/10)
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a complex network of gas clouds and star clusters within our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This region of energetic star birth is one of the most active in the nearby Universe.

The Large Magellanic Cloud contains many bright bubbles of glowing gas. One of the largest and most spectacular is LHA 120-N 11, from the catalogue compiled in 1956 by the late astronomer and astronaut Karl Henize. It is informally known as N11. ...

N11 is a well-studied region that extends across 1000 light-years. It is the second largest star-forming region within the Large Magellanic Cloud and has produced some of the most massive stars known.

LHA 120-N 11 – click for 2500×2458 image

More: here

Creativity and mental illness

Sunday, June 27, 2010

The association between creativity and mental illness is sort of a cliché – but that doesn't mean there's nothing to it. Standard examples given include Vincent van Gogh, Robert Lowell, and John Nash.

There has been a rather large amount of research into the connection, and a large number of biographical accounts of famous creative people who also suffered from mental illness. But the neurobiological details are emerging only slowly. After all, our understanding of the biological roots of either creativity or mental illness remains fairly rudimentary.

However, one recent study does add some tantalizing clues.

Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related to Psychometric Creativity in Healthy Individuals
Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test) were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity.

Executive summary: There is a correlation between performance on a part of a common psychological test for creativity and a certain property of neurons in a brain structure called the thalamus. The association with mental illness, specifically schizophrenia, is that the same neural abnormality in the same part of the brain has also been found to correlate with various symptoms of schizophrenia.

Let's look at creativity first. It's often defined, to quote from the research paper, as "the ability to produce work that is at the same time novel and meaningful, as opposed to trivial or bizarre". A creative work should be original and unexpected, but it should also be more than just randomly different from the ordinary. It should also impress us as insightful or solve a difficult problem.

So there are several abilities a creative person should possess. They don't necessarily correlate with each other, but all or most should be present for "true" creativity. A creative artist, for instance, should be inventive and original, but also have good artistic skills. As far as the present research is concerned, we're dealing just with the aspect of creativity that comprises novelty and originality.

The psychological test used in this research is called the "Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test". It's a general intelligence test, and it consists of several parts. One part is the "Inventiveness battery", and the specific ability that measures is called "divergent thinking".

Even within the divergent thinking component, several characteristics can be distinguished. The test may ask, for example, to think of as many reasonable uses as possible for an object like a brick. The characteristics that might be observed include:
Fluency–the number of valid responses; Originality–how frequent the participant's responses were among the responses of the rest of the sample; Flexibility–the number of semantic categories produced; Switching–the number of shifts between semantic categories; and Elaboration–how extensive each response is (if the task involves producing more than single words).

To do well on this test, a subject must be able to quickly produce valid responses that are unobvious and diverse in nature, not just variations on a few themes.

Previous research had established that divergent thinking is influenced by the "dopaminergic" neural system, i. e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine. Specifically, there is a correlation between divergent thinking (as measured by the test just described) and certain variants of the dopamine D2 receptor. The present research further narrows down the relationship.

We've discussed dopamine before (list). It is involved in quite an impressive number and diversity of psychological phenomena, including appetite, addiction, risk-taking, memory, and trust. Some abnormalities of the dopaminergic system are also implicated in pathologies such as ADHD, Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia (dum-da-dum-dum).

Indeed, because dopamine is involved in so many functions, therapies for certain dopamine-related disorders can cause side effects in seemingly unrelated areas. For example, Parkinson's disease results from insufficient dopamine activity, but treatments that raise dopamine levels can cause other problems, such as pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, binge eating and other impulse control disorders. (Ref.: here.)

The reason that dopaminergic neuron abnormalities have such diverse effects is that dopaminergic neurons are common in a number of specialized areas of the brain. A dopamine abnormality will therefore affect whatever function such an area is involved in.

As far as divergent thinking is concerned, there are two brain areas of particular interest: the striatum and thalamus. Many neurons in both regions have D2 receptors. And interestingly enough, these regions are also linked with schizophrenia. As the research paper notes,
[N]etworks relevant to divergent thinking, i.e. structures and processes in associative corticostriatal-thalamocortical loops overlap to a great extent with regions and networks affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, dopamine is known to influence processing in these networks and alterations in dopaminergic function and activity of D2 receptors have been linked to both positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Two regions appear to be of particular interest in this context: the thalamus and the striatum. Several studies have shown thalamic D2BP to be reduced in drug-naïve schizophrenia patients. Moreover, D2BP in subregions of the thalamus was found to be negatively related to total symptoms, general symptoms, positive symptoms, hostility and suspiciousness as well as grandiosity.

(D2BP refers to D2 "binding potential", which depends on the number density of D2 receptors and their ability to bind dopamine.)

Based on the known facts, the researchers decided to look for correlations between a measure of divergent thinking and D2BP in the thalamus and the striatum. What they found was that, indeed, there was a significant (p=.013) negative correlation, in a relatively small sample of healthy (non-schizophrenic) individuals, between a measure of divergent thinking and D2BP in the thalamus. There was not a similar correlation in the striatum.

In other words, non-schizophrenic people who had lower dopamine activity in the thalamus tended to have higher divergent thinking scores. This is pretty interesting in itself, especially since other studies have shown lower D2BP in the thalamus to be correlated with higher scores for pathological symptoms in schizophrenics.

What, then, is known about the function of the thalamus? It's a left-right midplane symmetric structure, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It has a number of functions, especially as a relay station between the cortex and various subcortical areas. In particular, all sensory signals (except smell) pass through substructures of the thalamus on their way to the part of the cortex that processes them. The thalamus is also thought to be important for regulation of sleep, wakefulness, and consciousness – which makes sense, as it's in a position to control what sensory signals get through.

But why do the dopaminergic neurons of the thalamus have something to do with divergent thinking? The present research doesn't explicitly say anything about that. But the researchers suggest some hypotheses:
Based on the current findings, we suggest that a lower D2BP in the thalamus may be one factor that facilitates performance on divergent thinking tasks. The thalamus contains the highest levels of dopamine D2 receptors out of all extrastriatal brain regions. Decreased D2BP in the thalamus has been suggested, firstly, to lower thalamic gating thresholds, resulting in decreased filtering and autoregulation of information flow, and, secondly, to increase excitation of cortical regions through decreased inhibition of prefrontal pyramidal neurons. The decreased prefrontal signal-to-noise ratio may place networks of cortical neurons in a more labile state, allowing them to more easily switch between representations and process multiple stimuli across a wider association range.

Stated more clearly, perhaps, though less precisely, it seems that lower dopamine activity in the thalamus may allow a freer flow of associations to reach the cortex, which is where higher-level cognition takes place. At the same time, however, if this effect is too strong, the result could be cortical activity that is, pathologically, too chaotic.

This post was chosen as an Editor's Selection for ResearchBlogging.org
de Manzano, �., Cervenka, S., Karabanov, A., Farde, L., & Ullén, F. (2010). Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related to Psychometric Creativity in Healthy Individuals PLoS ONE, 5 (5) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010670

Further reading:

Creativity linked to mental health (5/18/10)

Link Between Creativity and Mental Illness Revealed (5/19/10)

More brains and bonkers connection: thinking out of a broken box (5/24/10)

Dopamine receptor binding potential in the thalamus and creativity (6/1/10)

Creative madness (8/1/10)

Related articles:

Sugar can be addictive (1/11/09)

Dopamine and obesity (11/17/08)

Selected readings 6/13/10

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Interesting reading and news items.

Please leave some comments that indicate which articles you find most interesting or that identify topics you would like to read about, and I will try to include more articles of a similar nature in the future

These items are also bookmarked at my Diigo account.

Anticipating the first steps beyond the Standard Model
Physicists’ knowledge of elementary particles is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics, which currently describes almost everything we’ve seen. Yet there is compelling evidence that the Standard Model cannot be the complete description of nature. For example, despite all of its successes, the Standard Model describes only 20 percent of the mass of the Universe. Eighty percent of the mass is known as “dark matter,” which we have never directly observed and know next to nothing about. [Symmetry Breaking, 6/3/10]

Could DZero result point to multiple Higgses?
What caused the DZero result’s large deviation from Standard Model predictions is just as earth-shaking a mystery. The answer could point to the completion of the Standard Model, missing only the theorized Higgs boson particle, or the creation of a new story line for a host of new particles in the saga of how matter in the universe behaves. In their quest for a full explanation, scientists debate whether they are simply missing a chapter in the Standard Model or if they need a sequel that goes beyond the model, potentially including extra dimensions or a theory called supersymmetry that would double the number of known particles. [Symmetry Breaking, 6/4/10]

What is a "law of physics," anyway?
Why should nature be governed by laws? Why should those laws be expressible in terms of mathematics? Why should they be formulated within space and time? These were the questions posed at a fascinating workshop two weeks ago at the Perimeter Institute, the sequel to a workshop held at Arizona State University in December 2008. ... The bottom line is that the organizers had better start planning on more sequels, because the questions seem as intractable as ever. [Scientific American, 6/4/10]

What a shoddy piece of work is man
The human body is certainly no masterpiece of intelligent planning. The eye's retina, for instance, is wired back to front so that the wiring has to pass back through the screen of light receptors, imposing a blind spot. Now John Avise, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of California at Irvine, has catalogued the array of clumsy flaws and inefficiencies at the fundamental level of the genome. His paper ... throws down the gauntlet to advocates of Intelligent design, the pseudo-scientific face of religious creationism. What Intelligent Designer, Avise asks, would make such a botch? [Nature News, 5/3/10]

Illuminating the brain
Now though, advances in a five-year-old field called optogenetics are convincing these scientists to crack open molecular-biology textbooks. Using a hybrid of genetics, virology and optics, the techniques involved enable researchers to instantaneously activate or silence specific groups of neurons within circuits with a precision that electrophysiology and other standard methods do not allow. Systems neuroscientists have longed for such an advance, which allows them their first real opportunity to pick apart the labyrinthine jumble of cell types in a circuit and test what each one does. [Nature News, 5/5/10]

The code within the code
95% of the human genome is alternatively spliced, and that changes in this process accompany many diseases. But no one knew how to predict which form of a particular gene would be expressed in a given tissue. "The splicing code is a problem that we've been bashing our heads against for years," says Burge. "Now we finally have the technologies we need." [Nature News, 5/5/10]

European and Asian genomes have traces of Neanderthal
The genomes of most modern humans are 1–4% Neanderthal — a result of interbreeding with the close relatives that went extinct 30,000 years ago, according to work by an international group of researchers. [Nature News, 5/6/10]

Linux vs. Genome in Network Challenge
A comparison of the networks formed by genetic code and the Linux operating system has given insight into the fundamental differences between biological and computational programming. The shapes are very dissimilar, reflecting the evolutionary parameters of each process. Biology is driven by random mutations and natural selection. Software is an act of intelligent design. [Wired, 5/5/10]

Complex Life Traced to Ancient Gene Parasites
Mysterious gene structures called introns that help make complex organisms possible are descended from DNA parasites that infested bacteria billions of years ago, according to a new study. ... The findings fit the notion that group II introns flourished in the early Earth’s heat, and were ultimately co-opted into their hosts’ genomes. [Wired, 6/9/10]

The Magical Mystery Tour
Cassini, the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn, has revealed intricate details of the gas giant planet and its moons -- but many mysteries remain. Six years ago, the Cassini spacecraft began orbiting Saturn and taking detailed images of its ring and many moons. While the Cassini-Huygens mission has helped answer questions about this planetary system, it also has revealed new mysteries for scientists to puzzle over. [Physorg.com, 5/5/10]

Peptides may hold 'missing link' to life
Scientists have discovered that simple peptides can organize into bi-layer membranes. The finding suggests a "missing link" between the pre-biotic Earth's chemical inventory and the organizational scaffolding essential to life. [Physorg.com, 5/6/10]

Physicists study how moral behaviour evolved
A statistical-physics-based model may shed light on the age-old question "how can morality take root in a world where everyone is out for themselves?" Computer simulations by an international team of scientists suggest that the answer lies in how people interact with their closest neighbours rather than with the population as a whole. [Physicsworld.com, 5/5/10]

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Selected readings 6/6/10

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Interesting reading and news items.

Please leave some comments that indicate which articles you find most interesting or that identify topics you would like to read about, and I will try to include more articles of a similar nature in the future

These items are also bookmarked at my Diigo account.

Einstein (Still) Rules The Universe
The pair of independent studies each used observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to test Einstein's theory of General Relativity, and to study the properties of gravity on cosmic scales. Both demonstrated that Einstein's theory continues to hold true almost a century after it was first published. [Space.com, 4/23/10]

Listening for the 'birth cries' of black holes
We're talking about the astronomical stuff of nightmares - gargantuan explosions that rip apart giant stars to create black holes. Artist's impression of jets emerging from a dying starThese events are detected in space every few days thanks to Nasa's Swift observatory. The spacecraft sits above the Earth hunting for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the intensely bright but fleeting flashes of very high-energy radiation that can sweep our way from all points in the sky.
[BBC News, 4/20/10]

Hubble's role in search for aliens
The powerful vision of the Hubble Telescope - which turns 20 this week - has expanded our cosmic horizons and brought into sharper focus a new set of mysteries about the universe that is our home. To those whose science is gleaned from the media, astronomy may seem to be on a roll. And it is. [BBC News, 4/22/10]

Revealing the True Solar Corona
A total solar eclipse—the Moon blocking out the entire body of the Sun—actually reveals great detail of the Sun’s structure. When the blinding brilliance of the Sun is obscured, this allows its more tenuous surrounding features—its corona—to come into view. Investigating the corona may seem straightforward, but it requires an understanding beyond seeing, imaging and modeling. [American Scientist, 5/1/10]

Convincing the Public to Accept New Medical Guidelines
A $1.1 billion provision in the federal stimulus package aims to address the issue by providing funds for comparative effectiveness research to find the most effective treatments for common conditions. But these efforts are bound to face resistance when they challenge existing beliefs. As Nieman and countless other researchers have learned, new evidence often meets with dismay or even outrage when it shifts recommendations away from popular practices or debunks widely held beliefs. [Miller-McCune Online, 4/20/10]

Terra Incognita
The essential question is not whether you do or don't believe in a fundamental theory of everything. The essential question is what is a good and promising way to expand what is known. You can believe in flying spaghetti monsters, reincarnation, or a theory of everything: if it helps you with your research, by all means, go ahead, just don't put your believes in the abstract of your paper. [Backreaction, 5/21/10]

Protons not as “strange” as expected
The G-Zero collaboration proposed a precisely tuned survey for ephemeral particles that appear only briefly inside matter. Specifically, they wanted to measure the effect of strange particles in the proton, the sub-atomic particle found deep inside the nucleus of every atom in our universe. [Symmetry Breaking, 4/27/10]

Signs of dark matter may point to mirror matter candidate
Mirror matter would interact very weakly with ordinary matter. For this reason, some physicists have speculated that mirror particles could be candidates for dark matter. Even though mirror matter would produce light, we would not see it, and it would be very difficult to detect. [Physorg.com, 4/27/10]

Earth's Climate Used to Weigh Chances of Alien Life
Greenhouse gases have a bad reputation because of the role they're playing in global warming on Earth today. However, scientists say we also owe our lives to greenhouse gases because they might have allowed life to take hold in the first place. A new study of how these and other climate conditions have affected the origin and evolution of life on Earth could provide clues to understanding how climates on alien planets might affect their potential life. [Space.com, 6/3/10]

Evidence grows for tetraquarks
The existence of a new form of matter called a tetraquark has been given further support by the re-analysis of an experiment that has baffled particle physicists for the past two years. [Physicsworld.com, 4/27/10]

The cancer genome challenge
In the past two years, labs around the world have teamed up to sequence the DNA from thousands of tumours along with healthy cells from the same individuals. Roughly 75 cancer genomes have been sequenced to some extent and published; researchers expect to have several hundred completed sequences by the end of the year. [Nature News, 4/14/10]

Biomarker Studies Could Realize Goal of More Effective and Personalized Cancer Medicine
Biological and genomic studies are showing that most types of cancer are not single diseases, but rather complex disorders with distinct causes. Take breast cancer, for example: "When we say 'breast cancer', we're probably lumping 15 different diseases into that category," says co-author Joseph Nevins.... Subtle differences in the tumors' genomes and genetic expression are what make drugs work in certain patients and not in others. [Scientific American, 4/26/10]

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